What is a Living Will?
A living will is a legal document that indicates your desire to withhold or withdraw certain medical care based on your health circumstances.
How is a Living Will made?
Anyone who is competent and 18 years of age or older can make a living will by signing and dating a statement like that above, either typed or handwritten, before two witnesses. The witnesses must be at least 18 years of age and in order to avoid legal issues, should not be related to the person signing the declaration, a beneficiary of his or her estate or financially responsible for his or her medical care. Consider that while it is important to prepare a living will before any hospitalization or impending surgery you should avoid deciding in a short period of time.
Limitations of living wills
State statute provides significant limitations to a living will. Terms such as “death-prolonging procedure” and “terminal condition” are used to specify the circumstances to which a living will apply. Both of these terms are related to conditions where death will occur within a short period of time if additional treatment is not provided. A living will is intended only to avoid treatment when death is imminent and treatment ineffectively avoids or significantly delays death. Also, statutes prohibit a living will from withholding or withdrawing artificially supplied nutrition and hydration including sustenance supplied through a feeding tube or intravenously.
Alternatives to living wills
If you would like to provide health care instructions beyond the scope of a living will you can create an advance directive, instead. An advance directive allows you to provide instruction regarding the degree of medical care you would like to receive in particular circumstances when you are unable to refuse treatment yourself. While a competent patient may refuse treatment himself an incompetent person may rely on an advance directive in order to ensure that his wishes are carried out. Recently, courts have provided people the opportunity to exceed the limitations of living will statutes in advance directives. Advance directives may include instructions to withhold or withdraw artificially supplied nutrition and hydration or other treatment or machinery which may maintain a patient in a persistent vegetative state. Additionally, advance directives do not need to be composed in any standard form and may include which procedures may or may not be used as well as the effective timeframes. However, like living wills, advance directives should be signed, dated and witnessed.
What should I do with my living will?
It is important to ensure that your living will or advance directive is easily accessible as they may be needed at a moment’s notice. While some people ensure that they constantly have a copy with them you should provide your physician with a copy at minimum. This not only notifies him of your desires in the case of an emergency but provides you with the opportunity to discuss your medical options. You should also provide a copy to your attorney-in-fact in the case of your incapacity. Additionally, if you are hospitalized it is important to ensure that a copy has been included in your medical records. It is wise to sign multiple copies of your living will or advance directive.
Revoking a living will
A living will or advance directive may be easily revoked or canceled. Either an oral or written statement may revoke your wishes. It is best to gather and destroy all copies to prevent any confusion. Many state statutes require that note of revocation of a living will be placed in the medical records.
Why give an advance directive?
Advance directives allow you to accomplish at least two things regardless of the provide guidance on some, all or no treatment. First, they allow you to establish the degree of treatment you would like. Second, they remove the burden of making difficult health decisions from your family members while they are emotionally upset. Of course, providing explicit direction also helps avoid litigation.